中国研究者倾向认为蒙古族核心源流为东胡系,但就目前东胡系族群古DNA而言,C-F1756+一支独大,而此类型在现代蒙古族比例较低,仅略高于华北汉族。因此,东胡似乎为蒙古族重要父系族源,但不似核心族源。

C-M504(包括其分支“星簇”)是各地蒙古人普遍高频出现的超级大簇,但其起源确非常模糊,在当前古人基因组中,尚罕见于新石器期、青铜期、匈奴期的漠北古人基因组中,暗示该家族进入漠北草原地区的年代可能非常晚近。

Wang CC,et al., 2021报道的俄罗斯远东滨海地区的新石器期博伊斯曼文化古族出现了比例不低的C-M504样本。笔者以大美基因Isogg2019分型计算器为工具,尝试对其中两个样本进行分型,以判断博伊斯曼古族M504与现代蒙古等族群M504的关联。

两例样本的C2a1a3-M504同级突变信息如下表所列,二者共同覆盖到的位点,具有一致的突变特征。二者均表现为同时携带多个阴性同级位点的现象,暗示博伊斯曼文化古族可能为早期分化的旁系始祖。

染色体Hg38位置参考序列读取次数读取结果测序质量单倍体群基因标记
chrY1.4E+07g2aaEAC2a1a3AM01318
chrY7557500t3EEEC2a1a3F966
chrY1.6E+07C3EEEC2a1a3F3791
chrY1.6E+07C1tEC2a1a3F3795
chrY1.4E+07G3AEEC2a1a3F3939
chrY9607557t7…….EEEEEEEC2a1a3F4141
chrY7683002a2..EEC2a1a3FGC16318
chrY8035318t1.EC2a1a3FGC16323
chrY1.1E+07a1gEC2a1a3FGC16361
chrY1.4E+07a1.$CC2a1a3FGC16403
chrY1.4E+07c1gEC2a1a3Y4581
chrY1.6E+07c1tEC2a1a3FGC16445
chrY1.9E+07G1.EC2a1a3FGC16470
chrY1.9E+07g2aaEEC2a1a3FGC16471
chrY1.9E+07c1TEC2a1a3FGC16472
chrY1.9E+07g1cEC2a1a3Y4621
chrY2E+07T1.EC2a1a3FGC16486
染色体Hg38位置参考序列读取次数读取结果测序质量单倍体群基因标记
chrY14250604g1aEC2a1a3AM01318
chrY7285468a1GEC2a1a3F914
chrY7557500t5…..EEE6EC2a1a3F966
chrY13138316G1.EC2a1a3F1918
chrY15741318C2..EEC2a1a3F3791
chrY14131457G1.EC2a1a3F3939
chrY9607557t5…..EEEE/C2a1a3F4141
chrY8035318t1.EC2a1a3FGC16323
chrY8166327g1aEC2a1a3FGC16326
chrY8646692g1.EC2a1a3FGC16329
chrY14684415c1^F.EC2a1a3Y8801
chrY15871208G1.EC2a1a3FGC16440
chrY19090184g1aEC2a1a3FGC16471
chrY19146259g1CAC2a1a3FGC16476
chrY19707246T1^F.BC2a1a3Y4630
chrY20305981c1.EC2a1a3FGC16502
chrY20599155c1TEC2a1a3FGC16508

根据Yfull平台的估算,M504系列突变最早开始于1.41万年前,而现代样本涵盖的所有突变最终完成于3900年前。而2例博伊斯曼古族在M504同级突变中的阳性比例分别为8/17和6/17。

以此估计,推测博伊[文]斯曼M504与现代[章]蒙古等族群M504[来]+分化年代在约80[自]00多年前。两例博[历]伊斯曼古族样本中,[史]最古老的一例样本其[大]上限已达距今700[全]0年前,已经非常接[网]近此估算分化年代。[文]

新石器时代博伊斯曼古族M504+早期分化样本的出现,让蒙古超级大簇星簇族群的起源判断,更偏向于俄罗斯远东滨海地区。

Instance IDSkeletal codeCo-authors associated with analyzing this sampleSkeletal elementMethod for Determining Date; unless otherwise specified, calibrations use 95.4% intervals from OxCal v4.4.2 Bronk Ramsey (2009); r:5; Atmospheric data from Reimer et al (2020)Date mean in BP [OxCal mu for a direct radiocarbon date, and average of range for a contextual date]Date standard deviation in BP [OxCal sigma for a direct radiocarbon date, and standard deviation of the uniform disribution between the two bounds for a contextual date]Full Date: One of two formats. (Format 1) 95.4% CI calibrated radiocarbon age (Conventional Radiocarbon Age BP, Lab number) e.g. 2624-2350 calBCE (3990±40 BP, Ua-35016). (Format 2) Archaeological context range, e.g. 2500-1700 BCEConfidence of archaeological and chronological contextualization for the genetic data for this individualGroup ID (the suffix “_lc” indicates fewer than 15000 SNPs covered on the 1240k target set)Included in population genetic analysis (also indicated if included in Figure 3)LocalityExcavation reference if availableCountry or RegionLatitudeLongitudeData typeNumber of LibrariesAverage coverage on autosomal targetsSNPs hit on autosomal targetsGenetic SexFamily ID and position within familySum total of ROH segments >4cM from hapROHSum total of ROH segments >20cM from hapROHY chromosome haplogroup (called only for males with 1240K data and only if >50000 autosomal SNPs hit)mtDNA coveragemtDNA haplogroup only called if >2x coveragemtDNA match to consensus if >2x coverageDamage rate in first nucleotide on sequences overlapping 1240k targets for samples processed at Harvard; C->T_CpG_5 for samples processed in ChinaXcontam ANGSD SNPs (only if male)Xcontam ANGSD MOM 95% CI truncated at 0 (only if male and SNPs > 200)ContamLD contamination 95% CI (Ccorrecting bias with damage-restricted sequences and only reported for samples covered by at least 100000 autosomal SNPs)Library typeLibraryID(s)Percent human sequences by library (computed on shotgun data)Qualitative assessment
I3355Popov39, Cemetery 2, Burial 5Popov, Alexander; Kim, Alexander; Tabarev, Andrei; Nikitin, YuritoothDirect: IntCal206821524989-4787 calBCE (5985±35 BP, PSUAMS-2114)Confident – The genetic data clusters this individual with others from the Boisman cemetery as well as previously published Amur River Basin Neolithic individuals from the Devil’s Gate site. The direct 14C date on this individual is consistent with other dates from the Boisman cemetery.Russia_MN_BoismanYesPrimorsky Krai, Boisman-2. Excavations: Popov, 1998-1999.Publication: Popov, 2008..Russia42.78944444131.27611111240K capture11.852770483Mn/a (no relatives detected)20722C2a1a-F3927689C5a[0.992,0.998]0.0683225[0.004,0.010][0,0.026]ds.UDG.halfS3355.E1.L10.1104PASS
I3356Popov46, Cemetery 2, Burial 3Popov, Alexander; Kim, Alexander; Tabarev, Andrei; Nikitin, YuritoothDirect: IntCal205605243705-3633 calBCE (4875±20 BP, PSUAMS-2160)Confident – The genetic data clusters this individual with others from the Boisman cemetery as well as previously published Amur River Basin Neolithic individuals from the Devil’s Gate site. The direct 14C date on this individual is also consistent with previously reported radiocarbon dates from the cemetery.Russia_MN_BoismanYesPrimorsky Krai, Boisman-2. Excavations: Popov, 1998-1999.Publication: Popov, 2008..Russia42.78944444131.27611111240K capture11.998775129MRussia, Primorsky Krai, Boisman-2 Family A (6 members) I14771-I14772-I14773-I14774-I3356-I14819 have a son-daughter-son2-daughter2-father-mother relationship14144C2a1a-F1788502C5b1[0.996,1.000]0.0453578[0.000,0.005][0,0.015]ds.UDG.halfS3356.E1.L10.0744PASS

博伊斯曼文化(Boismanskaya culture),俄罗斯远东地区的新石器期考古文化。

博伊斯曼古DNA和蒙古星簇之间的关系 单倍群C M504究竟来自何处 蒙古 单倍群 DNA 第1张

其文化特征类似于朝鲜半岛的楚门文化(Chulmun culture)。公元前3000年至1000年之间,该考古文化在符拉迪沃斯托克(Vladivostok)附近的滨海边疆区的西南海岸有广泛的分布。其考古文化的特殊之处是在贝壳丘中留下有坟墓。前苏联体质人类学研究者根据头骨形状的分析,认为该遗址居民是北极种族的代表。中国体质人类学家通常将其归入古东北类型,曾广泛分布于新石器时代的中国东北地区。

博伊斯曼文化遗物:

博伊斯曼古DNA和蒙古星簇之间的关系 单倍群C M504究竟来自何处 蒙古 单倍群 DNA 第2张

与邻近考古文化的比较:

博伊斯曼古DNA和蒙古星簇之间的关系 单倍群C M504究竟来自何处 蒙古 单倍群 DNA 第3张

Wang CC,et al., 2021的遗传研究表明,Boisman的种群与日本Jōmon时期的种群具有遗传学层次上的相关性。研究还表明,与东亚其他人群相比,美洲原住民与博伊斯曼文化古族共享更多的等位基因。这些结果表明,博伊斯曼文化古族与美洲原住民的的起源有关。

在南方因素相关的沿[章]海与内亚方面,博伊[来]斯曼如预期的那样,[自]携带微量的类昙石山[历]文化沿海区域血统,[史]而不见类湄公河组的[大]内亚因素。

流行计算器方面,博伊斯曼古族(I3356)未见显著的类高加索人种信号。

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